Military History

Marching south from Acre, Richard the Lionheart's army finally tired on September 7, 1191, of the constant harassment inflicted on it by Saladin's army. Against orders, Knights Hospitaller in the rear guard broke ranks and charged the Ayyubids. The Battle of Arsuf was a decisive crusader victory.

Military History

Brother-Knights Held Vast Power

At the height of their power, the Levantine military-religious orders were a political and military force to be reckoned with not only in the Latin East where they were founded, but also in the Latin West where they had vast estates that funneled manpower and supplies east for the fight against the foes of Christendom. Read more

Charles of Anjou sails to Rome in 1265 and is crowned the new king of Sicily in a 14th-century manuscript illumination.

Military History

Dreams of Empire

The story of Charles of Anjou is one of the lesser known episodes of Mediterranean history but a significant one. The youngest of several sons of Louis VIII, Charles received a unique opportunity available to few princes so far removed from succession. Read more

Military History

Principles of Fabian Strategy

“I am sick of Fabian systems in all quarters,” said American patriot John Adams of General George Washington’s strategy against superior British forces during the American Revolution. Read more

The commander of a Japan- ese fighter squadron took it upon himself to attack the Seventh Amphibious Force at the start of the Battle of Biak. Submarine Chaser 699 suffered heavy damage in the attack. Painting by Don Greer.

Military History

Submarine Chaser 699 (SC-699)

By Brad Hall

The crew of Submarine Chaser 699 (SC-699) watched with dread as the Japanese fighter aircraft slammed into the ocean, cartwheeled off the ocean’s surface, and spun toward its deck. Read more

Military History

Heyde Toy Soldiers

By Steve Sommers

About 30 years ago, my wife and I were walking around a big antique toy market on a county fair site. Read more

Military History

A ghost of the Battle of Britain rises from the English Channel.

The slender fuselage of the Dornier Do-17 engendered the German bomber’s distinctive nickname of the “flying pencil.” In the summer of 1940, the Do-17 was an integral component of the Luftwaffe air armada that struck British military installations and cities in the vain effort to bring the island nation to its knees. Read more

Military History

The Song of the Nibelungs

When the Huns swept through the plains of northern Europe in spring 451 on their way to what would become one of the decisive battles of Late Antiquity, the Frankish peoples could do little to resist the swarming bands of horsemen who showed no mercy to anyone in their path. Read more

Fez-wearing King Otto I of Greece is seen with his military entourage, 1840.

Military History

The Military Fez

By Peter Suciu

Thanks to movies and tV, the fez is usually associated with the Middle East, notably Turkey. It has also become a form of ceremonial headgear for lodges and fraternal organizations in the United States. Read more

Military History

Forbes vs. Wilde

The peripatetic Archibald Forbes had made his reputation as a war correspondent during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871, when he bet rightly on the Prussians to win the war and attached himself accordingly to King Wilhelm I’s field headquarters. Read more

In 1536, Charles retook Tunis from Barbarossa and the Barbary corsairs, capturing 80 enemy ships in the process.

Military History

The 1541 Algiers Expedition

By Bruce Ware Allen

In the late summer 1541, 40 warships appeared off the shores of Sardinia, part of a grand armada gathered by Charles the V of Spain, Holy Roman Emperor. Read more