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As one aviator is strapped into the cockpit of his Hawker Hurricane fighter, other pilots of the Eagle Squadron dash to the aircraft as an alarm is sounded during the Battle of Britain.

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Yanks in the RAF

By David Alan Johnson

As they boarded the train for Montreal, the two Americans tried to look as inconspicuous as possible. Read more

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Pointe du Hoc: D Plus 60 Years

By Kevin M. Hymel

The gunfire has receded with the tide. One of the most valuable pieces of real estate in Normandy, France, on June 6, 1944, which once crawled with American GIs and German soldiers, now welcomes peaceful visitors from around the world. Read more

U.S. landing craft churn through the rough waters of the English Channel toward the coast of Normandy. The morning haze and the smoke ofå battle blow across the beaches, while some soldiers have already disembarked and wade the last few feet to shore.

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“We’ll Start the War from Here”

By Roy Morris Jr.

Peering through the predawn darkness at the slowly emerging shoreline 300 yards away, the little man with the famous name prepared once again to set foot in France as a soldier of the liberation. Read more

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A. Jay Cristol’s ‘The Liberty Incident’

By Lt. Col. Harold E. Raugh, Jr., Ph.D., U.S. Army (Ret.)

On June 8, 1967, during the height of the Six-Day War between Israel and its Arab adversaries, the USS Liberty was attacked apparently without warning while in international waters in the eastern Mediterranean. Read more

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Guns at Bear Paw

Dear Editor:

In an excellent Military Heritage (December 2003) article about the Gatling gun, A.B. Feuer indicates that a Gatling gun was used at the Battle of the Bear Paw from September 30-October 5, 1877. Read more

Hearty soldiers from Normandy—descendants of Norsemen— looked for challenges and opportunities far from home and found some in Italy. They landed there in the early 11th century and began to assemble dominions for themselves.

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Singing Swords & Charging Warhorses

By Terry Gore

Italy in the mid-11th century was in chaos. Ostensibly held together under the auspices of papal and Holy Roman Empire authority, the peninsula had become a collection of feuding city-states, each under its own local ruler or warlord. Read more

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Commandos and Ghosts

By Eric T. Baker

World War II continues to be very hot on the video game front. Commandos 3: Destination Berlin puts the player in command of an elite unit of Special Forces behind enemy lines in Europe. Read more

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The Battles of Twin Tunnels and Chipyong-ni

By Lt. Col. Harold E. Raugh, Jr., Ph.D., U.S. Army (Ret.)

Success in combat and life and death on the battlefield may often owe to the manpower, materiel, or logistics superiority of one opponent over the other. Read more

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Jackson Confounds the Yankees

By Brooke. C Stoddard

Arguably the most celebrated campaign feat of arms of the American Civil War is that of Stonewall Jackson in the Shenandoah Valley in May and early June 1862. Read more

A crowned Duke William II of Normandy discovers the Saxon King Harold lying dead on the battlefield in this Victorian painting of the Battle of Hastings by Frank Wilkin. The actual encounter was some six miles from Hastings, at Senlac Hill, near the present-day town of Battle, East Sussex.

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William, Duke of Normandy

By Mark Carlson

The final defeat of the Saxon King Harold at the Battle of Hastings on October 14, 1066, meant that England became forever Norman. Read more

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Horatio Nelson: Deserving Hero

Days before the impending battle of Trafalgar, a sailor on Horatio Nelson’s flagship Victory was so busy ensuring that each man’s letters home were secured for dispatch on a vessel bound for England that he forgot until after the ship had sailed that he hadn’t included his own. Read more

A Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress heavy bomber of the U.S. Army Air Forces makes a bombing run over the city of Osnabruck, Germany, during World War II. When the B-17 was introduced, many observers considered it too expensive. However, the bomber was a workhorse in the European theater as army air power evolved during the war years.

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The Army and Air Power

By Sam McGowan

When the United States Army first developed an interest in aviation and purchased its first airplane from the Wright Company in 1909, it and the pilots and mechanics who flew and serviced it were assigned to the Signal Corps, a specialty corps that had been established prior to the Civil War to develop visual signals, then later to develop and service telegraph lines. Read more