A modern illustration shows Roman legionnaires on the march. The front ranks typically charged into battle, stopping to hurl their pilum before closing with the enemy using their gladius. In the melee, they used their scutum to knock their opponents off balance.

Marc Antony

Roman Armageddon at Pharsalus

By William E. Welsh

The snow-capped peaks of the Ceraunian Mountains stared down on the sturdy barks hunting for a suitable place to land on the coast of Epirus on January 5, 48 bc. Read more

With the fresh memory of their slaughtered comrades , the Roman legionaries at the Long Bridges fought with one thought and one will—revenge.

Marc Antony

Germanicus Cæsar

By Michael D. Greaney

In ancient Rome, politics and family were inextricably linked. The incestuous nature of the ruling Julio-Claudian dynasty was well embodied by the brief but notable career of Germanicus, who rose to the heights of power, only to be cast down by his own blood kin. Read more

When Julius Caesar and Pompey squared off in their Civil War, ruses, lies, and interrogations affected the outcome.

Marc Antony

Julius Caesar vs Pompey: A Civil War of Subterfuge

By Douglas Sterling

Unlike Pompey, much of Julius Caesar’s military successes in the late Roman Republic stemmed not only from his ability as a leader of men and from tactical prowess on the battlefield, but also from his understanding of the importance of military intelligence. Read more