A French army under Gaston de Foix interrupted its siege of Ravenna, Italy, to give battle to Spanish forces on a soggy plain south of the city.

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Death of the Fox: Battle of Ravenna (1512)

By William E. Welsh

As the first rays of sunlight chased away the shadows from the base of the high walls surrounding the village of Ravenna in northern Italy on Easter Sunday, April 11, 1512, the French army besieging the town began to form into columns. Read more

As Protestant Europe reeled before a Catholic onslaught, three unlikely heroes arose to take up the banner of “Winter King” Frederick V.

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Protestant Heroes of 1622

By Louis Ciotola

As the year 1622 dawned over Germany, things appeared bleak for the refugee “Winter King” of Bohemia, Elector Palatine Frederick V. Read more

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Salses, the Spanish Fortress

by Susan Ludmer-Gliebe

In the autumn of 1495, three years after the Christian reconquest of Islamic Spain, Queen Isabella I of Castile and her husband, King Ferdinand II of Aragon, sent a letter to their master architect. Read more