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Byzantine Empire

Medieval Siege Artillery

Medieval Siege Artillery

By William E. Welsh
In the 15th century the great powers of medieval Europe paid talented gunsmiths to build massive bombards to batter walls and shorten the length of sieges. The introduction of bombards meant that artillery replaced mining as the surest way to breach a stronghold.
Bombards were massive guns, the   More »

Conquest of Constantinople

Conquest of Constantinople

By Ludwig Heinrich Dyck

In the late evening of March 29, 1432, Murad II, sultan of the Ottoman Turks, awaited the imminent birth of his child to one of his harem wives. According to tradition, Murad was reading the verses of the Koran promising victory against the unbeliever when he was   More »



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Japanese Sneak Attack on Sydney Harbor

Japanese Sneak Attack on Sydney Harbor

In May 1942, a Japanese submarine force snuck into Australia’s Sydney Harbor for a daring, suicidal attack.

Napoleon Bonaparte in Present-Day Israel

Napoleon Bonaparte in Present-Day Israel

When an Ottoman army surrounded Jean Kleber’s Division of Mount Tabor on April 16, 1799, the timely arrival of Napoleon Bonaparte ensured a French victory.

Nazi U-Boats At America’s Doorsteps

Nazi U-Boats At America’s Doorsteps

Nazi U-Boats brought World War II to America’s shores as they ravaged merchant shipping off the East Coast.

World War I Doughboys’ Bloody Baptism

World War I Doughboys’ Bloody Baptism

In their first major battles of World War I, American Expeditionary Force troops helped blunt multiple offensives launched by the German Army in the spring of 1918.

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