In June 1757, ever-victorious Prussian monarch Frederick the Great advanced confident on Austrian forces at Kolin.

Seven Years War

Frederick The Great’s First Defeat

By Arnold Blumberg

Frederick the Great’s prescription for warfare was simple. The Prussian monarch wanted “short and lively wars” that relied on swift, powerful, and decisive military operations. Read more

New York City-born William Alexander served the patriot cause during the Revolution as the “Rebel Earl,” Lord Stirling.

Seven Years War

William Alexander: Hero of the American Revolution

By William Be. Allmon

Of all the generals who fought on the Patriot side during the American Revolution, none was more renowned than New York City native William Alexander, better known to his contemporaries as “Lord Stirling.” Read more

The battle-ax was developed in A.D. 500. The first version, the francisca, was named after Frankish warriors who used them against the Romans.

Seven Years War

The Battle-Ax

By William McPeak

The shafted ax has been around since 6000 bc, in both peaceful and warlike uses. The so-called battle-ax cultures (3200 to 1800 bc) extended over much of northern Europe from the late Stone Age through the early Bronze Age. Read more

Posing as Czar Peter III, look-alike Emelian Pugachev led a revolt of Cossacks against Catherine the Great’s Imperial Russia. He almost succeeded.

Seven Years War

Emelian Pugachev: Master Imposter of a Russian Czar

By Blaine Taylor

On August 12, 1772, a wandering Don Cossack named Emelian Pugachev crossed the Polish frontier into Imperial Russia on an official passport that entitled him, after spending six weeks in quarantine, to resettle as a free citizen on the Irgiz River in southeast Russia. Read more

Seven Years War

Famous Military Weapons: Mortars

by William McPeak

The mortar is perhaps the oldest surviving ordnance piece developed during the Middle Ages. The earliest known forerunner to the mortar, introduced by Spanish Muslims about ad 1250, was essentially an iron-reinforced bucket that hurled stones with gunpowder. Read more

Seven Years War

Napoleon vs. Russia: Battle of Eylau

By Vince Hawkins

Following the French Army’s brilliant victories at the twin battles of Jena and Auerstadt on October 14, 1806, the Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte subsequently launched his Grande Armée in a devastating pursuit of the remnants of the Prussian Army. Read more

Frederick the Great put to use what he learned from his successes and failures at the Battle of Leuthen.

Seven Years War

Frederick the Great and the Battle of Leuthen: Triumph of Tactics

By Vincent B. Hawkins

Frederick the Great put to use what he learned from his successes and failures. At age 28, new king Frederick Wilhelm II (the Great) burst out of Prussia in an attack on Silesia, which lay within the domain of Maria Theresa, Queen of Austria and Empress of the Holy Roman Empire. Read more