Viking longboats cut through the sea while on expedition. King Harald’s nickname was “Hardradi,” meaning “the ruthless;” something his enemies could surely attest to.


Harald “Land Waster” Hardradi

by Kenneth Cline

For many history buffs, the date 1066 conjures up an image of Norman knights breaking through the shield wall of the ax-wielding Anglo-Saxons at Senlac Hill. Read more

The Battle of Bannockburn


The Battle of Bannockburn: Edward II vs Robert the Bruce

By Terry Gore

Robert the Bruce, self-proclaimed King of the Scots, grasped his axe as the heavily armored English nobleman, a member of the vanguard of the 20,000-strong English army, bore down upon him, lance leveled and clods of earth arching from his charger’s hoofs. Read more


The Lucky Lit. Wit Daniel Defoe

By Roy Morris Jr.

When the Duke of Monmouth began his doomed, quixotic march across southern England in the summer of 1685, one of the few volunteers to join him from royal-dominated London was a 24-year-old hosiery merchant and trader named Daniel Defoe. Read more

A crestfallen nobleman bearing a blood-soaked flag delivers news of the Scottish defeat at Flodden to a group of elders. The English victory eliminated Scotland as a military threat for years afterward, and solidified Henry VIII’s hold on England.


Turning the Flank at Flodden

By Robert Swain

Flanking movements were long known to English military commanders, but traditionally they were limited to maneuvers by one wing around an enemy’s line—not by the entire army itself, which would have been considered highly unorthodox and far too risky. Read more