How Hannibal Hammered the Roman Army

By Keith Milton

Gisgo, a commander in the Carthaginian army, sat on his horse nervously as he waited with other members of the staff for their general, the now-famous Hannibal, to complete his final inspection. Read more


Blaise de Monluc

By William McPeak

A hundred miles north of the mountainous region near the Pyrenees was the rolling land of the Garonne River, home of the Gascon noble families. Read more

During the Battle of Roncesvalles, Charlemagne's Franks were frustrated at their inability to punish the Basques for robbing their baggage train.


Charlemagne’s Shame: The Battle of Roncesvalles

by William E. Welsh

Lost to history is what really occurred at the Battle of Roncesvalles in 778 when Christian Basques, thirsting for the loot in the Frankish baggage train, attacked the rearguard as it withdrew following Charlemagne’s short invasion of northern Iberia. Read more