French honor dictated that the nation continue fighting as long as the city of Paris held out against Prussian invaders. A pitiless siege ensued.

Kaiser Wilhelm I

The Siege of Paris

By Louis Ciotola

The final outcome of the Franco-Prussian War was decided on September 2, 1870. On that day, more than 100,000 French troops, including Emperor Napoleon III, surrendered to the Prussian Army at Sedan. Read more

Helmuth von Moltke’s complex strategy to defeat the Austrian Army required to Prussian princes to adhere to its principles to ensure its success.

Kaiser Wilhelm I

The Art of Victory: Koniggratz 1866

By William E. Welsh

The Prussian soldiers had been awake long before sunup on the morning of July 3, 1866, and were marching downhill to the Bystrice River in the rolling countryside of Bohemia, 65 miles east of Prague. Read more

From ancient cave drawings to the Internet, men have been reporting their wars almost as long as they have been fighting them.

Kaiser Wilhelm I

The Pen & the Sword: A Brief History of War Correspondents

By Roy Morris Jr.

Men have been reporting their wars almost as long as they have fighting them. The first prehistoric cave drawings depicted hunters bringing down wild animals, and spoken accounts of battles, large and small, formed the starting point for the oral tradition of history. Read more

Kaiser Wilhelm I

Wilhelm I, Accidental King of Prussia

by Blaine Taylor

In mid-October 1806, four days after Napoleon had crushed the Royal Prussian Army at the twin battles of Jena and Auerstädt, a distraught Queen Louise sat down with her two sons at the royal castle in Schwedt. Read more