With her army under siege in Palmyra, Zenobia escaped, hoping to reach the Persians and broker an alliance, but was soon captured by the Romans. She is shown here before Emperor Aurelian, who planned for her to adorn his Triumph in Rome.

Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece, the cornerstone of Western civilization, was a northeastern Mediterranean society that flourished from the 12th century B.C. to approximately A.D. 600. Through the centuries, Ancient Greece was the cradle of Western thought and culture as the ideals of philosophy, medicine, mathematics, theater, democracy, and others were conceived and flourished at various times. Ancient Greece was also involved in numerous wars, both as city-states such Athens and Sparta vied for supremacy, and as foreign invaders sought to dominate the Peloponnese, the geographic peninsula that was its nexus.

The “Alexander mosaic” on display at the National Archaeological Museum in Naples, Italy. From Pompeii, c.100 BCE, the floor mosaic is believed to be a copy of a lost Hellenistic Greek painting by Philoxenos of Eretria from the 4th century BCE , depicting Alexander the Great and Darius III of Persia at the Battle of Issus (333 BCE).

Ancient Greece

Alexander: What Made Him Great

By Kelly Bell

He was the first Caucasian many of his conquered subjects had ever seen. The empire he established during his short life stretched from Greece to the Indus River in modern Pakistan, an area of about 2 million square miles—more than twice the size of the Louisiana Purchase. Read more

Ancient Greece

Zenobia’s Bloody War of Independence

By Glenn Barnett

The pages of history tend to dwell on the men who created empires. No matter how ephemeral may be the famed exploits of an Alexander, Caesar or Napoleon, historians have written volumes on their behalf. Read more

A Greek trireme rams a Persian trireme in Salamis Bay while hoplites and archers engage each other with spears and arrows.

Ancient Greece

High Stakes at Salamis

By Erich B. Anderson

As the sun rose shortly after dawn on a morning in late September 480 BC, 170 rowers densely packed on three tiers within an Athenian warship strenuously pushed their oars to propel their vessel forward as fast as possible. Read more

A modern illustration shows Roman legionnaires on the march. The front ranks typically charged into battle, stopping to hurl their pilum before closing with the enemy using their gladius. In the melee, they used their scutum to knock their opponents off balance.

Ancient Greece

Roman Armageddon at Pharsalus

By William E. Welsh

The snow-capped peaks of the Ceraunian Mountains stared down on the sturdy barks hunting for a suitable place to land on the coast of Epirus on January 5, 48 bc. Read more

Alexander the Great’s soldiers are shown attacking Tyre in a modern illustration. Simultaneous attacks by Alexander’s fleet on both of the city’s harbors after six months of fighting put an impossible strain on the Tyrians’ resources.

Ancient Greece

The Fall of Tyre

By Alexander Zakrzewski

As Alexander the Great marched his army south along the Levantine coast in January 332 bc, he must have felt as if the fates were unquestionably on his side. Read more

Ancient Greece

Unstoppable God Of War Alexander At Issus

By Charles Hilbert

Those rare qualities that set the extraordinary military commanders apart from the average ones were present in Alexander the Great, wrote the Greek historian Arrian, who drew on the account of Alexander’s general, Ptolemy. Read more

Greek hoplites armed with large shields and iron-tipped spears charge the Persians at Marathon.

Ancient Greece

Athenian Glory at Marathon

By Erich B. Anderson

In 491 bc, heralds sent by Persian Emperor Darius I traveled throughout Greece with a message for each of the city-states of the Greek peninsula. Read more

Ancient Greece

Ancient Greek General Epaminondas

By Tim Miller

Astounding news swept through Greece in the summer of 371 bc. In Boeotia, a crossroads for armies that was usually littered with the dead of its own citizens, the invading Spartans had been beaten, and one of their two kings had been slain in battle. Read more

Ancient Greece

Vanguard of Elephants on the Hydaspes River

By Gabrielle Esposito

The Macedonian soldiers stood transfixed on the flood plain as the Pauravan army advanced toward them. The ground shook with each step the great lumbering war elephants took as they advanced toward the wide-eyed Greeks. Read more