Kaiser Wilhelm I, standing on the dais, proclaims a new German empire in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles on January 18, 1871. He is flanked by Crown Prince Frederick Wilhelm and the Grand Duke of Baden. Otto von Bismarck stands at the base of the steps in a white uniform.

Franco-Prussian War

Wilhelm I, Accidental King of Prussia

By Blaine Taylor

In mid-October 1806, four days after Napoleon had crushed the Royal Prussian Army at the twin battles of Jena and Auerstädt, a distraught Queen Louise sat down with her two sons at the royal castle in Schwedt. Read more

Franco-Prussian War

The Siege of Paris

By Louis Ciotola

The final outcome of the Franco-Prussian War was decided on September 2, 1870. On that day, more than 100,000 French troops, including Emperor Napoleon III, surrendered to the Prussian Army at Sedan. Read more

Trapped in a pocket at Sedan, Emperor Napoleon III and his officers surrender their swords to the Prussians after the emperor agreed to the unconditional surrender.

Franco-Prussian War

Snared in a Prussian Trap

By Victor Kamenir

Driven and energetic in his youth, by the late 1860s French Emperor Napoleon III was a shadow of his former self. Read more

Franco-Prussian War

Axis Leaders: Paul von Hindenburg

by Blaine Taylor

At 3 am, on August 23, 1914, a solitary figure stood on a darkened railway platform at Hanover, Germany, awaiting a special train’s arrival from Berlin. Read more

Russia, Great Britain, and France formed the Triple Entente as their common interests were threatened by the emergence of the Triple Alliance.

Franco-Prussian War

Russia in WWI’s Triple Entente

by Michael Haskew

By the time Imperial Russia and Great Britain concluded the Anglo-Russian Convention on August 31, 1907, effectively establishing the alliance known as the Triple Entente, the Russian Empire was in the midst of decades of upheaval. Read more

During WWI, Great Britain, France, and Imperial Russia sought to contain the threat of German expansion around the world with the Triple Entente.

Franco-Prussian War

Great Britain & WWI’s Triple Entente

by Michael Haskew

The old proverb that states, “The enemy of my enemy is my friend,” gained significant meaning for the government and people of Great Britain at the turn of the 20th century. Read more