Portrait of Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, painted c. 1618 by Peter Paul Rubens.


The Battle of Grandson

By Eric Niderost

On Friday, September 28, 1473, Charles, Duke of Burgundy arrived at Trier to meet with the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III. Read more


Disaster at Nicopolis

By William E. Welsh

Thick black smoke rose skyward from burning villages on the southern frontier of the Hungarian Kingdom in the spring of 1395. Read more

In her battle armor, Joan of Arc leads a rapturous army of French followers who believe her to be divinely inspired.


Joan of Arc’s Loire Campaign: The English Tide Recedes

By William Welsh

None of those present at the war council held on July 18, 1429, at Beaugency in central France seemed to object to the peculiar sight of an armor-clad young woman advising some of the greatest military captains of the age on how to proceed with the campaign to crown the Dauphin Charles king of France. Read more

During the Battle of Roncesvalles, Charlemagne's Franks were frustrated at their inability to punish the Basques for robbing their baggage train.


Charlemagne’s Shame: The Battle of Roncesvalles

by William E. Welsh

Lost to history is what really occurred at the Battle of Roncesvalles in 778 when Christian Basques, thirsting for the loot in the Frankish baggage train, attacked the rearguard as it withdrew following Charlemagne’s short invasion of northern Iberia. Read more

The massacre of the Burgundians in 437 became the historical backdrop for the Middle High German epic poem, The Nibelungenlied.


Burgundian Massacre: the Story of the Nibelungenlied

by William E. Welsh

When the Huns swept through the plains of northern Europe in spring 451 on their way to what would become one of the decisive battles of Late Antiquity, the Frankish peoples could do little to resist the swarming bands of horsemen who showed no mercy to anyone in their path. Read more