Southern Reconstruction refers to the post-Civil War period from 1865 to 1877 during which the Union was restored and initiatives were undertaken to establish and safeguard the rights of former slaves and to transform Southern society. President Abraham Lincoln had favored a conciliatory form of Reconstruction; however, he was assassinated in April 1865, and a somewhat harsher Reconstruction program was implemented, including the armed occupation of parts of the South.
During WWII, the unique civilian organization did much to boost the morale of soldiers at home and abroad.
Acclaimed General Lloyd Fredendall lost his command after the debacle at the Battle of the Kasserine Pass.
The surprise attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, benefited from the firsthand observation of spies on Oahu.