The alliance between the Ottoman Empire and Imperial Germany was concluded shortly after the outbreak of World War I. The Ottoman Empire was in serious decline, and its leaders sought economic and military assistance that might strengthen the Ottoman army and navy. The Germans sought access to the Middle East and Asia in order to threaten British colonial interests.
During WWII, the unique civilian organization did much to boost the morale of soldiers at home and abroad.
Acclaimed General Lloyd Fredendall lost his command after the debacle at the Battle of the Kasserine Pass.
The surprise attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, benefited from the firsthand observation of spies on Oahu.