Legislation approved by the U.S. Congress in June 1973, the Case-Church Amendment prohibited further American military involvement in Southeast Asia without the approval of Congress, in effect a reversal of the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution that had authorized the president to take action against North Vietnam without a formal declaration of war. The Case-Church Amendment ended direct U.S. military involvement in Vietnam.
During WWII, the unique civilian organization did much to boost the morale of soldiers at home and abroad.
Acclaimed General Lloyd Fredendall lost his command after the debacle at the Battle of the Kasserine Pass.
The surprise attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, benefited from the firsthand observation of spies on Oahu.